Something About Data

With this post I am going to briefly walk through some things about data you many not have thought about.   I think that this might give you a different and useful perspective on the nature of data.  I’ll start first with the various types of data and data elements.  Then I’ll get into some data... » read more

Graphing With R

There are a number of ways in ggplot to express your data.  The first are the geometric objects: geom_bar(): Bar charts geom_point(): Points – great for scatter plots geom_line(): Line charts geom_boxplot(): A box & whiskers plot geom_smooth(): Smoothed means with CI geom_histogram(): Histogram geom_density(): Smoothed density plot geom_qq(): A quantile-quantile plot geom_errorbar(): Error bars... » read more

Exploring Data

Before we can perform statistical analysis on our data, we have to check the data.  Do we assume that the data is normally distributed?  Do we assume that each feature (attribute) is independent?  Do we assume that data comes from the same population, under the same conditions? No, we don’t.  We must check (explore) the data... » read more

Replacing Excel With R

Excel is great for spreadsheet use.  I can remember taking accounting in college, when I was not aware of Excel (before I had a computer – I know, it was a long time ago).  We used sheets of paper that we had to adjust manually (erasers were invaluable).  Some of the figures were adjusted so... » read more

Digital Marketing KPIs – Definition & Metrics

KPIs are the metrics that matter most to your business objectives.  These are numbers that, when they change, you stand up and take notice.  Most often, KPIs are a combination of more than one metric.  For example, ROI is a combination of revenue & cost metrics.  Revenue by itself can be considered a KPI, but... » read more